Definitions (from the Animal Welfare Meat Chickens Code of Welfare 2012):
Act The Animal Welfare Act 1999.
Advisory livestock personnel
Experienced or trained personnel such as meat chicken advisors, technical
advisors, and hatchery managers in commercial companies and also
includes independent avian specialists, and advisory personnel from
hatcheries and poultry breeding companies.
As defined in the Act:
“(a) Means any live member of the animal kingdom that is –
(i) A mammal; or
(ii) A bird; or
(iii) A reptile; or
(iv) An amphibian; or
(v) A fish (bony or cartilaginous); or
(vi) Any octopus, squid, crab, lobster, or crayfish (including freshwater
(vii) Any other member of the animal kingdom which is declared from time to
time by the Governor-General, by Order in Council, to be an animal for the
purposes of the Act; and
(b) Includes any mammalian foetus, or any avian or reptilian pre-hatched
young, that is in the last half of its period of gestation or development; and
(c) Includes any marsupial pouch young; but
(d) Does not include –
(i) A human being; or
(ii) Except as provided in paragraph above, any animal in the pre-natal, prehatched,
larval, or other such developmental stage.”
NAWAC takes to mean technologies which are used practically to care for
and manage animals, for example, existing chemicals, drugs, instruments,
devices and facilities.
Protection from the introduction of potential disease-causing organisms.
Area for housing chicks.
Undesirable compaction of surface of litter possibly due to excess moisture.
Newly hatched meat chickens up to seven days of age.
Chicken humanely killed for health or welfare reasons.
Chicks up to 72 hours of age (surviving on their internal yolk sack).
Easily crumbled, loose and free-flowing.
Enclosed housing (in sheds or barns) where the environment is controlled and the meat chickens are reliant on human management for all their daily
NAWAC takes to mean a standard of care that has a general level of
acceptance among knowledgeable practitioners and experts in the field; is
based on good sense and sound judgement; is practical and thorough; has
robust experiential or scientific foundations; and prevents unreasonable or
unnecessary harm to, or promotes the interests of, the animals to which it is
applied. Good practice also takes account of the evolution of attitudes about
animals and their care.
As defined in the Act: “in relation to an animal, means causing the animal to
suffer, by any act or omission, pain or distress that in its kind or degree, or in
its object, or in the circumstances in which it is inflicted, is unreasonable or
Mechanical method of humane destruction of eggs and day-old chicks (may
also be known as maceration).
An international measure of light intensity (not to be confused with watts).
Meat Chicken / chicken / broiler
A male or female chicken, including day-old and older chicks, kept primarily
for meat production.
Minimum standards provide the details of specific actions people need to
take in order to meet the obligations in the Act. They are identified in the text
by a heading, and generally use the word “must” or similar. They are
highlighted in boxes within the text.
Obvious gait deficit
Severely lame chickens that only take a few steps before squatting down or
are incapable of walking on their feet.
As defined in the Act: “in relation to an animal, includes the parent or
guardian of a person under the age of 16 years who –
(a) Owns the animal; and
(b) Is a member of the parent’s or guardian’s household living with and
dependent on the parent or guardian.”
Person in charge
As defined in the Act: “in relation to an animal, includes a person who has an animal in that person’s possession or custody, or under that person’s care, control, or supervision.”
As defined in the Act: “means –
(a) Any animal in a wild state that, subject to subsection (2), the Minister of
Conservation declares, by notice in the Gazette, to be a pest for the
purposes of this Act:
(b) Any member of the family Mustelidae (except where held under a
licence under regulations made under the Wildlife Act 1953):
(c) Any feral cat:
(d) Any feral dog:
(e) Any feral rodent:
(f) Any feral rabbit:
(g) Any feral hare:
(h) Any grass carp:
(i) Any Koi or European carp:
(j) Any silver carp:
(k) Any mosquito fish:
(l) Any animal in a wild state that is a pest or unwanted organism within the
meaning of the Biosecurity Act 1993.”
Placing of chicks in meat chicken shed.
A small opening that provides access between indoor and outside areas.
Recommended best practice
NAWAC takes to mean the best practice agreed at a particular time,
following consideration of scientific information, accumulated experience and
public submissions on this code. It is usually a higher standard of practice
than the minimum standard, except where the minimum standard is best
practice. It is a practice that can be varied as new information comes to light.
Recommendations for best practice will be particularly appropriate where it is
desirable to promote or encourage better care for animals than is provided
as a minimum standard.
Recommended best practices are identified in the text by a heading, and
generally use the word “should”.
NAWAC takes to mean knowledge within animal-based scientific disciplines,
especially those that deal with nutritional, environmental, health, behavioural
and cognitive/neural functions, which are relevant to understanding the
physical, health and behavioural needs of animals. Such knowledge is not
haphazard or anecdotal; it is generated by rigorous and systematic
application of the scientific method, and the results are objectively and
critically reviewed before acceptance.